Customizing a mathfield
The appearance and behavior of the mathfield is highly customizable. Here are a few common examples.
The mathfield can be styled using the
style attribute on the
for example to change the base font size or add a border.
Change line 2-6 of the HTML in the playground below with
color: #dde; background: #256291;.
The content of the mathfield is displayed using a family of high-quality
fonts based on the original Computer Modern font from TeX. The mathfield
will not display correctly using another font. By default, the directory containing
the fonts is located next to the file containing the mathlive library.
If your bundler or asset management system require a different configuration
you can specify where the fonts can be located using the
fontsDirectory option or the
Note that changing the fonts directory for one mathfield will change the fonts used by all the other mathfield elements in the page.
Some CSS variables (custom properties) can be used to modify the appearance of the mathfield:
--hue: (0…360) default is 212 (light blue). The default colors below are derived from this variable
--highlight: color of the selected fragment of the expression, when the mathfield is active
--highlight-inactive: selection color when the mathfield is not focused
--caret: color of the caret (insertion point)
--primary: accent color for some UI elements, such as the virtual keyboard toggle
--smart-fence-opacity: opacity of a smart gence (default is 50%)
--smart-fence-color: color of a smart fence (default is current color)
--text-font-family: the font stack used in text mode
Set these CSS variables on any selector inherited by the
math-field tag, for example,
body: although CSS styles are "invisible" to
custom components, CSS variables are "passed through" and will affect the
content of the
<math-field> custom component.
The appearance of a formula, in an editable mathfield or as a static representation, can be controlled with some of the following options:
To change the foreground ("ink") and background ("paper") colors of a formula
programmatically, use the
To change the foreground color, use the
To change the background color, use the
The first argument of these commands is a color specified as:
- a RGB color using the standard CSS format (
- a CSS color name (
- one of the 68 colors from dvips color name (
- one of the 10 Mathematica color from
- a color defined using the syntax from the
xcolorpackage, for example:
The following color names are recommended. They can be applied using the color keys in the virtual keyboard:
These colors have been carefully selected for a balanced representation of the range of
hues on the color circle, with similar lightness and intensity. They will map to different color values than the
dvips colors of the same name.
To have proper legibility based on usage, these color names will map to different values when used as a foreground color and a background color. To use a specific color value, use a RGB color instead.
To customize how the color names are interpreted provide a
To change the base font size, set the
font-size CSS property to the desired
value on the
mathfield or static element.
Within a formula, the size can be specified from a font scale with 10 values, where 1 em is the base font size of the mathfield or static element.
In TeX, the sizing commands behave inconsistently when applied to math. Other implementations of TeX may also interpret the sizing commands differently.
To control some aspects of the math typesetting, change the mathstyle with
displaystyle style is most appropriate when there is plenty of space around
the formula. Limits over large operators, such as
\sum are displayed above
and below the operator. There is a generous amount of space below the numerator
and above the denominator of fractions, and around relational (
=) and binary
textstyle style is useful when space is constrained or when displaying
a formula with some regular text around it. The limits of large operators
are displayed after the operator. The numerator and denominator of fractions is
displayed using a smaller font size. However, the font-size for other characters
is not affected.
scriptscriptstyle are rarely needed explicitly. The
content is laid out using a smaller font-size (70% and 50% of the base font-size,
respectively) and the spacing between operators is minimized. Note however
that these styles are used automatically in some situations. For example,
when using the
textstyle, the limits of a large operator
or the superscript or subscript of a symbol are displayed using these styles.
Notice for example that
displaystyle does not include space around
= sign because the limit is displayed in
To set the default mathstyle of a mathfield, use the
Set it to
inline-math to use
math to use
By default, the mathfield element behaves as if it had a
CSS property. To get it to behave as a inline element, set
display: inline-block on the mathfield. This is particularly useful when
used in conjunction with
Letter Shape Style
To control which letters are automatically italicized, use the
letterShapeStyle configuration option.
In the ISO style, lower and uppercase roman letter and lower and upper case greek letters are italicized when used as a variable. Mathematical constants such as \(e\) are written upright.
TeX has traditionally implemented a layout option that italicizes romman letters and lowercase greek letters, but not uppercase greek letters.
The French typographical convention is to only italicize lowercase roman letters.
The default letter shape style is
auto: if the system locale is "french",
french style is used,
Some configuration options can be specified when creating a mathfield as
the argument of
new MathfieldElement() or as an attribute to the
as we’ve see above with the
The configuration options can also be changed programmatically using the
Several of these configuration options affect the behavior while editing a formula:
inline-maththe math field is using inline math mode by default. If set to
math, it will use the display math mode. If set to
textit will use the text mode.
removeExtraneousParentheses: automatically remove extra parentheses around a numerator or denominator
scriptDepth: maximum levels of subscript or superscript. Set it to 0 to prevent the input of superscript and subscripts
smartFence: automatically convert parentheses to
smartMode: switch to text mode when text input is detected, for example when typing "if x > 0"
smartSuperscript: automatically move out of a superscript when a digit is typed
In the code playground below, try some of these options. For example, change
line 3 to
scriptDepth: 0, then try to type "x^2" in the mathfield.
See EditingOptions for more details about these and other available options.
Handling the Space Bar
In traditional math typesetting, spaces have no effect: the spacing of elements in a formula is determined by the nature of the elements: numbers, punctuation, relational, binary or unary operators, etc…
To control spacing in a formula, use some of the LaTeX spacing commands:
\, (thin space),
\: (medium space),
\; (thick space),
By default, pressing the spacebar when in math mode does not insert anything.
To insert a LaTeX command when the spacebar is pressed, set the value of the
mathModeSpace option to that command:
The user interface of the mathfield is provided in english, arabic, german, greek, spanish, farsi, french, italian, japanese, polish and russian.
The language to use is detected automatically, but it can be overridden by
locale option or the
await for the
<math-field> definition to be loaded before
getOptions() method, otherwise it would not be found.