mathlive

Modules

module "mathfield-element"

module "mathfield-element"interface MathfieldElementAttributes

These attributes of the <math-field> element correspond to the [MathfieldOptions] properties.


default-mode: string
fonts-directory: string
horizontal-spacing-scale: string

Scaling factor to be applied to horizontal spacing between elements of the formula. A value greater than 1.0 can be used to improve the legibility.

deprecated

Use registers \thinmuskip, \medmuskip and \thickmuskip

inline-shortcut-timeout: string

Maximum time, in milliseconds, between consecutive characters for them to be considered part of the same shortcut sequence.

A value of 0 is the same as infinity: any consecutive character will be candidate for an inline shortcut, regardless of the interval between this character and the previous one.

A value of 750 will indicate that the maximum interval between two characters to be considered part of the same inline shortcut sequence is 3/4 of a second.

This is useful to enter “±” as a sequence of two characters, while also supporting the “±” shortcut with the same sequence.

The first result can be entered by pausing slightly between the first and second character if this option is set to a value of 250 or so.

Note that some operations, such as clicking to change the selection, or losing the focus on the mathfield, will automatically timeout the shortcuts.

keypress-sound: string

When a key on the virtual keyboard is pressed, produce a short audio feedback.

The value of the properties should a string, the name of an audio file in the soundsDirectory directory or ‘none’ to supress the sound.

keypress-vibration: boolean
letter-shape-style: string
locale: string

The locale (language + region) to use for string localization.

If none is provided, the locale of the browser is used.

math-mode-space: string

The Latex string to insert when the spacebar is pressed (on the physical or virtual keyboard). Empty by default. Use \; for a thick space, \: for a medium space, \, for a thin space.

plonk-sound: string

Sound played to provide feedback when a command has no effect, for example when pressing the spacebar at the root level.

The property is either:

  • a string, the name of an audio file in the soundsDirectory directory
  • ‘none’ to turn off the sound
read-only: boolean

When true, the user cannot edit the mathfield.

remove-extraneous-parentheses: boolean
shared-virtual-keyboard-target-origin: string

Specify the targetOrigin parameter for postMessage to send control messages from child to parent frame to remote control of mathfield component.

Default: window.origin

smart-fence: boolean

When true and an open fence is entered via typedText() it will generate a contextually appropriate markup, for example using \left...\right if applicable.

When false, the literal value of the character will be inserted instead.

smart-mode: boolean

When true, during text input the field will switch automatically between ‘math’ and ‘text’ mode depending on what is typed and the context of the formula. If necessary, what was previously typed will be ‘fixed’ to account for the new info.

For example, when typing “if x >0”:

Type Interpretation
“i” math mode, imaginary unit
“if” text mode, english word “if”
“if x” all in text mode, maybe the next word is xylophone?
“if x >” “if” stays in text mode, but now “x >” is in math mode
“if x > 0” “if” in text mode, “x > 0” in math mode

Smart Mode is off by default.

Manually switching mode (by typing alt/option+=) will temporarily turn off smart mode.

Examples

  • slope = rise/run
  • If x > 0, then f(x) = sin(x)
  • x^2 + sin (x) when x > 0
  • When x<0, x^{2n+1}<0
  • Graph x^2 -x+3 =0 for 0<=x<=5
  • Divide by x-3 and then add x^2-1 to both sides
  • Given g(x) = 4x – 3, when does g(x)=0?
  • Let D be the set {(x,y)|0<=x<=1 and 0<=y<=x}
  • \int_{the unit square} f(x,y) dx dy
  • For all n in NN
smart-superscript: boolean

When true, when a digit is entered in an empty superscript, the cursor leaps automatically out of the superscript. This makes entry of common polynomials easier and faster. If entering other characters (for example “n+1”) the navigation out of the superscript must be done manually (by using the cursor keys or the spacebar to leap to the next insertion point).

When false, the navigation out of the superscript must always be done manually.

speech-engine: string
speech-engine-rate: string
speech-engine-voice: string
text-to-speech-markup: string
text-to-speech-rules: string
use-shared-virtual-keyboard: boolean

When true, use a shared virtual keyboard for all the mathfield elements in the page, even across iframes.

When setting this option to true, you must create the shared virtual keyboard in the the parent document:

import { makeSharedVirtualKeyboard } from 'mathlive';

    makeSharedVirtualKeyboard({
        virtualKeyboardToolbar: 'none',
    });

Default: false

virtual-keyboard-layout: string
virtual-keyboard-mode: "auto" | "manual" | "onfocus" | "off"
  • 'manual': pressing the virtual keyboard toggle button will show or hide the virtual keyboard. If hidden, the virtual keyboard is not shown when the field is focused until the toggle button is pressed.
  • 'onfocus': the virtual keyboard will be displayed whenever the field is focused and hidden when the field loses focus. In that case, the virtual keyboard toggle button is not displayed.
  • 'off': the virtual keyboard toggle button is not displayed, and the virtual keyboard is never triggered.

If the setting is empty, it will default to 'onfocus' on touch-capable devices and to 'off' otherwise.

virtual-keyboard-theme: string

The visual theme used for the virtual keyboard.

If empty, the theme will switch automatically based on the device it’s running on. The two supported themes are ‘material’ and ‘apple’ (the default).

virtual-keyboards: string

A space separated list of the keyboards that should be available. The keyboard 'all' is synonym with 'numeric', 'functions'``, ‘symbols’`` 'roman' and 'greek',

The keyboards will be displayed in the order indicated.

module "mathfield-element"class MathfieldElement

Extends HTMLElement

Implements Mathfield

The MathfieldElement class provides special properties and methods to control the display and behavior of <math-field> elements.

It inherits many useful properties and methods from HTMLElement such as style, tabIndex, addEventListener(), getAttribute(), etc…

To create a new MathfieldElement:

// 1. Create a new MathfieldElement
const mfe = new MathfieldElement();
// 2. Attach it to the DOM
document.body.appendChild(mfe);

The MathfieldElement constructor has an optional argument of MathfieldOptions to configure the element. The options can also be modified later:

// Setting options during construction
const mfe = new MathfieldElement({smartFence: false});
// Modifying options after construction
mfe.setOptions({smartFence: true});

CSS Variables

To customize the appearance of the mathfield, declare the following CSS variables (custom properties) in a ruleset that applied to the mathfield.

math-field {
 --hue: 10       // Set the highlight color and caret to a reddish hue
}
CSS Variable Usage
--hue Hue of the highlight color and the caret
--highlight Color of the selection
--contains-highlight Backround property for items that contain the caret
--highlight-inactive Color of the selection, when the mathfield is not focused
--caret Color of the caret/insertion point
--primary Primary accent color, used for example in the virtual keyboard
--text-font-family The font stack used in text mode
--keyboard-zindex The z-index attribute of the virtual keyboard panel
--smart-fence-opacity Opacity of a smart gence (default is 50%)
--smart-fence-color Color of a smart fence (default is current color)

CSS Parts

To style the virtual keyboard toggle, use the virtual-keyboard-toggle CSS part. To use it, define a CSS rule with a ::part() selector for example:

math-field::part(virtual-keyboard-toggle) {
 color: red;
}

Attributes

An attribute is a key-value pair set as part of the tag:

<math-field locale="fr"></math-field>

The supported attributes are listed in the table below with their correspnding property.

The property can be changed either directly on the MathfieldElement object, or using setOptions() if it is prefixed with options., for example

 getElementById('mf').value = '\\sin x';
 getElementById('mf').setOptions({horizontalSpacingScale: 1.1});

The values of attributes and properties are reflected, which means you can change one or the other, for example:

getElementById('mf').setAttribute('virtual-keyboard-mode',  'manual');
console.log(getElementById('mf').getOption('virtualKeyboardMode'));
// Result: "manual"
getElementById('mf').setOptions({virtualKeyboardMode: 'onfocus');
console.log(getElementById('mf').getAttribute('virtual-keyboard-mode');
// Result: 'onfocus'

An exception is the value property, which is not reflected on the value attribute: the value attribute remains at its initial value.

Attribute Property
disabled disabled
default-mode options.defaultMode
fonts-directory options.fontsDirectory
sounds-directory options.soundsDirectory
horizontal-spacing-scale options.horizontalSpacingScale
inline-shortcut-timeout options.inlineShortcutTimeout
keypress-vibration options.keypressVibration
keypress-sound options.keypressSound
plonk-sound options.plonkSound
letter-shape-style options.letterShapeStyle
locale options.locale
math-mode-space options.mathModeSpace
read-only options.readOnly
remove-extraneous-parentheses options.removeExtraneousParentheses
smart-fence options.smartFence
smart-mode options.smartMode
smart-superscript options.superscript
speech-engine options.speechEngine
speech-engine-rate options.speechEngineRate
speech-engine-voice options.speechEngineVoice
text-to-speech-markup options.textToSpeechMarkup
text-to-speech-rules options.textToSpeechRules
value value
virtual-keyboard-layout options.keyboardLayout
virtual-keyboard-mode options.keyboardMode
virtual-keyboard-theme options.keyboardTheme
virtual-keyboards options.keyboards

See MathfieldOptions for more details about these options.

In addition, the following global attributes can also be used:

  • class
  • data-*
  • hidden
  • id
  • item*
  • style
  • tabindex

Events

Listen to these events by using addEventListener(). For events with additional arguments, the arguments are availble in event.detail.

Event Name Description
input The value of the mathfield has been modified. This happens on almost every keystroke in the mathfield.
change The user has commited the value of the mathfield. This happens when the user presses Return or leaves the mathfield.
selection-change The selection (or caret position) in the mathfield has changed
mode-change The mode (math, text) of the mathfield has changed
undo-state-change The state of the undo stack has changed
read-aloud-status-change The status of a read aloud operation has changed
virtual-keyboard-toggle The visibility of the virtual keyboard panel has changed
blur The mathfield is losing focus
focus The mathfield is gaining focus
focus-out The user is navigating out of the mathfield, typically using the tab key
`detail: {direction: ‘forward’
move-out The user has pressed an arrow key, but there is nowhere to go. This is an opportunity to change the focus to another element if desired.
`detail: {direction: ‘forward’
math-error A parsing or configuration error happened
`detail: ErrorListener<ParserErrorCode
keystroke The user typed a keystroke with a physical keyboard
detail: {keystroke: string, event: KeyboardEvent}
mount The element has been attached to the DOM
unmount The element is about to be removed from the DOM

class MathfieldElementnew MathfieldElement

To create programmatically a new mahfield use:

let mfe = new MathfieldElement();

// Set initial value and options mfe.value = “\frac{\sin(x)}{\cos(x)}”;

// Options can be set either as an attribute (for simple options)… mfe.setAttribute(‘virtual-keyboard-layout’, ‘dvorak’);

// … or using setOptions() mfe.setOptions({ virtualKeyboardMode: ‘manual’, });

// Attach the element to the DOM document.body.appendChild(mfe);

new MathfieldElement(options?: Partial<MathfieldOptions>): MathfieldElement
options: Partial<MathfieldOptions>
MathfieldElement

Accessing and changing the content

Selection

Other

Focus

Options

Accessing and changing the content

class MathfieldElementget/set value

value: string

The content of the mathfield as a Latex expression.

document.querySelector('mf').value = '\\frac{1}{\\pi}'

class MathfieldElementapplyStyle

Updates the style (color, bold, italic, etc…) of the selection or sets the style to be applied to future input.

If there is no selection and no range is specified, the style will apply to the next character typed.

If a range is specified, the style is applied to the range, otherwise, if there is a selection, the style is applied to the selection.

If the operation is ‘toggle’ and the range already has this style, remove it. If the range has the style partially applied (i.e. only some sections), remove it from those sections, and apply it to the entire range.

If the operation is ‘set’, the style is applied to the range, whether it already has the style or not.

The default operation is ‘set’.

applyStyle(style: Style, options?: Range | {operation: "toggle" | "set"; range: Range}): void
style: Style
options:
  • | Range
  • | {operation: "toggle" | "set"; range: Range}

class MathfieldElementgetValue

getValue(format?: OutputFormat): string
format: OutputFormat
string

getValue(start: number, end: number, format?: OutputFormat): string
start: number
end: number
format: OutputFormat
string

getValue(range: Range, format?: OutputFormat): string
range: Range
format: OutputFormat
string

getValue(selection: Selection, format?: OutputFormat): string
selection: Selection
format: OutputFormat
string

class MathfieldElementinsert

Inserts a block of text at the current insertion point.

This method can be called explicitly or invoked as a selector with executeCommand("insert").

After the insertion, the selection will be set according to the options.selectionMode.

insert(s: string, options?: InsertOptions): boolean
s: string
options: InsertOptions
boolean

class MathfieldElementsetValue

setValue(value?: string, options?: InsertOptions): void
value: string
options: InsertOptions

Selection

class MathfieldElementget/set caretPoint

caretPoint: {x: number; y: number}

The bottom location of the caret (insertion point) in viewport coordinates.

See also setCaretPoint

class MathfieldElementget lastOffset

lastOffset: number  read only

The last valid offset.

class MathfieldElementget/set position

position: number

The position of the caret/insertion point, from 0 to lastOffset.

class MathfieldElementget/set selection

selection: Selection

An array of ranges representing the selection.

It is guaranteed there will be at least one element. If a discontinuous selection is present, the result will include more than one element.

class MathfieldElementselect

Select the content of the mathfield.

select(): void

class MathfieldElementsetCaretPoint

x and y are in viewport coordinates.

Return true if the location of the point is a valid caret location.

See also caretPoint

setCaretPoint(x: number, y: number): boolean
x: number
y: number
boolean

Other

class MathfieldElementget/set defaultMode

defaultMode: "math" | "text" | "inline-math"

class MathfieldElementget/set disabled

disabled: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set fontsDirectory

fontsDirectory: string

class MathfieldElementget/set inlineShortcutTimeout

inlineShortcutTimeout: number

class MathfieldElementget/set keypressSound

keypressSound: string | HTMLAudioElement | {default: string | HTMLAudioElement; delete: string | HTMLAudioElement; return: string | HTMLAudioElement; spacebar: string | HTMLAudioElement}

class MathfieldElementget/set keypressVibration

keypressVibration: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set letterShapeStyle

letterShapeStyle: "auto" | "tex" | "french" | "iso" | "upright"

class MathfieldElementget/set locale

locale: string

class MathfieldElementget/set mathModeSpace

mathModeSpace: string

class MathfieldElementget/set mode

mode: ParseMode

class MathfieldElementget/set plonkSound

plonkSound: string | HTMLAudioElement

class MathfieldElementget/set readOnly

readOnly: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set readonly

readonly: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set removeExtraneousParentheses

removeExtraneousParentheses: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set sharedVirtualKeyboardTargetOrigin

sharedVirtualKeyboardTargetOrigin: string

class MathfieldElementget/set smartFence

smartFence: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set smartMode

smartMode: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set smartSuperscript

smartSuperscript: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set speechEngine

speechEngine: "local" | "amazon"

class MathfieldElementget/set speechEngineRate

speechEngineRate: string

class MathfieldElementget/set speechEngineVoice

speechEngineVoice: string

class MathfieldElementget/set textToSpeechMarkup

textToSpeechMarkup: "" | "ssml" | "ssml_step" | "mac"

class MathfieldElementset textToSpeechRule

textToSpeechRule: any  write only

class MathfieldElementget textToSpeechRules

textToSpeechRules: "mathlive" | "sre"  read only

class MathfieldElementget/set useSharedVirtualKeyboard

useSharedVirtualKeyboard: boolean

class MathfieldElementget/set virtualKeyboardLayout

virtualKeyboardLayout: "auto" | "qwerty" | "azerty" | "qwertz" | "dvorak" | "colemak"

class MathfieldElementget/set virtualKeyboardMode

virtualKeyboardMode: "auto" | "manual" | "onfocus" | "off"

class MathfieldElementget/set virtualKeyboardState

virtualKeyboardState: "hidden" | "visible"

class MathfieldElementget/set virtualKeyboardTheme

virtualKeyboardTheme: "" | "apple" | "material"

class MathfieldElementget/set virtualKeyboars

virtualKeyboars: string

class MathfieldElementaddEventListener

addEventListener(type: K, listener: (ev: HTMLElementEventMap[K]): any, options?: boolean | AddEventListenerOptions): void
type: K
listener: (ev: HTMLElementEventMap[K]): any
options:

class MathfieldElementexecuteCommand

Execute a Commands defined by a selector.

mfe.executeCommand('add-column-after');
mfe.executeCommand(['switch-mode', 'math']);
executeCommand(command: Selector | [Selector, ...any[]]): boolean
command:

A selector, or an array whose first element is a selector, and whose subsequent elements are arguments to the selector.

Selectors can be passed either in camelCase or kebab-case.

// Both calls do the same thing
mfe.executeCommand('selectAll');
mfe.executeCommand('select-all');
boolean

class MathfieldElementfind

Return an array of ranges matching the argument.

An array is always returned, but it has no element if there are no matching items.

find(pattern: string | RegExp, options?: FindOptions): Range[]
pattern:
options: FindOptions
Range[]

class MathfieldElementgetOffsetDepth

The depth of an offset represent the depth in the expression tree.

getOffsetDepth(offset: number): number
offset: number
number

class MathfieldElementremoveEventListener

removeEventListener(type: K, listener: (ev: HTMLElementEventMap[K]): any, options?: boolean | EventListenerOptions): void
type: K
listener: (ev: HTMLElementEventMap[K]): any
options:

class MathfieldElementreplace

Replace the pattern items matching the pattern with the replacement value.

If replacement is a function, the function is called for each match and the function return value will be used as the replacement.

replace(pattern: string | RegExp, replacement: string | ReplacementFunction, options?: FindOptions): void
pattern:
replacement:
options: FindOptions

Focus

class MathfieldElementblur

Remove the focus from the mathfield (will no longer respond to keyboard input).

blur(): void

class MathfieldElementfocus

Sets the focus to the mathfield (will respond to keyboard input).

focus(): void

class MathfieldElementhasFocus

Return true if the mathfield is currently focused (responds to keyboard input).

hasFocus(): boolean
boolean

Options

class MathfieldElementgetOption

getOption(key: K): MathfieldOptions[K]
key: K
MathfieldOptions[K]

class MathfieldElementgetOptions

getOptions(keys: K[]): Pick<MathfieldOptions, K>
keys: K[]
Pick<MathfieldOptions, K>

class MathfieldElementsetOptions

setOptions(options: Partial<MathfieldOptions>): void
options: Partial<MathfieldOptions>

module "mathfield-element"Types

module "mathfield-element"FocusOutEvent

The focus-out event signals that the mathfield has lost focus through keyboard navigation with the tab key.

The event detail.direction property indicates if tab (direction === "forward") or shift+tab (`direction === “backward”) was pressed which can be useful to decide which element to focus next.

If the event is canceled by calling ev.preventDefault(), no change of focus will occur (but you can manually change the focus in your event handler: this gives you an opportunity to override the default behavior and selects which element should get the focus, or to prevent from a change of focus altogether).

If the event is not canceled, the default behavior will take place, which is to change the focus to the next/previous focusable element.

mfe.addEventListener('focus-out', (ev) => {
 console.log("Losing focus ", ev.detail.direction);
});

direction: "forward" | "backward";

module "mathfield-element"KeystrokeEvent

The keystroke event is fired when a keystroke is about to be procesed. The event is cancellable, which wills suprress further handling of the event.


event: KeyboardEvent;

The native keyboard event

keystroke: string;

A string descring the keystroke, for example `“Alt-KeyU”. See W3C UIEvents for more information on the format of the descriptor.

module "mathfield-element"MathErrorEvent

The math-error custom event signals an error while parsing an expression.

document.getElementById('mf').addEventListener('math-error', (ev) => {
 const err = ev.detail;
 console.warn(err.code + (err.arg ? ': ' + err.arg : '') +
        '\n%c|  ' + err.before + '%c' + err.after +
        '\n%c|  ' + String(' ').repeat(err.before.length) +
        '▲',
        'font-weight: bold',
        'font-weight: normal; color: rgba(160, 160, 160)',
        'font-weight: bold; color: hsl(4deg, 90%, 50%)'
    );
});

after: string;
arg: string;
before: string;
code: ParserErrorCode | MathfieldErrorCode;
latex: string;

module "mathfield-element"MoveOutEvent

The move-out event signals that the user pressed an arrow key but there was no navigation possible inside the mathfield.

This event provides an opportunity to handle this situation, for example by focusing an element adjacent to the mathfield.

If the event is canceled (i.e. evt.preventDefault() is called inside your event handler), the default behavior is to play a “plonk” sound.


direction: "forward" | "backward" | "upward" | "downward";

module "options"

module "options"Functions

module "options"setKeyboardLayout

Change the current physical keyboard layout.

Note that this affects some keybindings, but not general text input.

If set to auto the keyboard layout is guessed.

setKeyboardLayout(name: KeyboardLayoutName | "auto"): void
name:

module "options"setKeyboardLayoutLocale

Change the current physical keyboard layout to a layout that matches the specified locale, if one is available.

Note that this affects some keybindings, but not general text input.

setKeyboardLayoutLocale(locale: string): void
locale: string

module "options"interface MathfieldHooks

These hooks provide an opportunity to intercept or modify an action. When their return value is a boolean, it indicates if the default handling should proceed.


onExport: (from: Mathfield, latex: string, range: Range): string

This hooks is invoked when the user has requested to export the content of the mathfield, for example when pressing ctrl/command+C.

This hook should return as a string what should be exported.

The range argument indicates which portion of the mathfield should be exported. It is not always equal to the current selection, but it can be used to export a format other than Latex.

By default this is:

 return `\\begin{equation*}${latex}\\end{equation*}`;
onKeystroke: (sender: Mathfield, keystroke: string, ev?: KeyboardEvent): boolean

A hook invoked when a keystroke is about to be processed.

  • keystroke: a string describing the keystroke
  • ev: the native keyboard event

Return false to stop the handling of the event.

deprecated

Use corresponding events of MathfieldEvent instead

onMoveOutOf: (sender: Mathfield, direction: "forward" | "backward" | "upward" | "downward"): boolean

A hook invoked when keyboard navigation would cause the insertion point to leave the mathfield.

  • direction indicates the direction of the navigation, either "forward" or "backward" or "upward" or "downward".

Return false if the move has been handled by the hook.

Return true for the default behavior, which is playing a “plonk” sound.

deprecated

Use corresponding events of MathfieldEvent instead

onTabOutOf: (sender: Mathfield, direction: "forward" | "backward"): boolean

This hook is invoked when pressing tab (or shift-tab) would cause the insertion point to leave the mathfield.

direction indicates the direction of the navigation.

By default, the insertion point jumps to the next/previous focussable element.

deprecated

Use corresponding events of MathfieldEvent instead

module "options"interface MathfieldListeners

The methods provide a notification that an event is about to occur or has occured.

In general instead of using this interface you should be listening to the corresponding event on MathfieldElement, i.e.

mfe.addEventListener('input', (ev) => {
console.log(ev.target.value);
});

deprecated

Use corresponding events of MathfieldEvent instead


onBlur: (sender: Mathfield): void

The mathfield has lost keyboard focus

onCommit: (sender: Mathfield): void
onContentDidChange: (sender: Mathfield): void
onContentWillChange: (sender: Mathfield): void
onFocus: (sender: Mathfield): void

The mathfield has gained keyboard focus

onModeChange: (sender: Mathfield, mode: ParseMode): void
onReadAloudStatus: (sender: Mathfield): void
onSelectionDidChange: (sender: Mathfield): void
onSelectionWillChange: (sender: Mathfield): void
onUndoStateDidChange: UndoStateChangeListener
onUndoStateWillChange: UndoStateChangeListener

module "options"interface VirtualKeyboardDefinition

classes?: string
command?: string | string[]
label: string
layer?: string
layers?: string[]
tooltip?: string

module "options"interface VirtualKeyboardKeycap

aside: string

Markup displayed with the key label (for example to explain what the symbol of the key is)

class: string

CSS classes to apply to the keycap.

  • tex: use the TeX font for its label. Using the tex class is not necessary if using the latex property to define the label.
  • modifier: a modifier (shift/option, etc…) keycap
  • small: display the label in a smaller size
  • action: an “action” keycap (for arrows, return, etc…)
  • separator w5: a half-width blank used as a separator. Other widths include w15 (1.5 width), w20 (double width) and w50 (five-wide, used for the space bar).
  • bottom, left, right: alignment of the label
command: Selector | [Selector, ...any[]]

Command to perform when the keycap is pressed

content: string

HTML markup to represent the keycap.

This property is only useful when using a custom keycap shape or appearance. Usually, setting the label property is sufficient.

insert: string

Latex fragment to insert when the keycap is pressed (ignored if command is specified)

key: string

Key to insert when keycap is pressed (ignored if command, insert or latex is specified)

label: string

The HTML markup displayed for the keycap

latex: string

Label of the key as a Latex expression, also the Latex inserted if no command or insert property is specified.

shifted: string

Markup for the label of the key when the shift key is pressed

shiftedCommand: Selector | [Selector, ...any[]]

Command to perform when the shifted key is pressed

variants: string | Partial<VirtualKeyboardKeycap>[]

A set of keycap variants displayed on a long press

variants: [
 '\\alpha',    // Same label as value inserted
 { latex: '\\beta', label: 'beta' }
]

module "options"interface VirtualKeyboardLayer

backdrop: string

A CSS class name to customize the appearance of the background of the layer

container: string

A CSS class name to customize the appearance of the container the layer

rows: Partial<VirtualKeyboardKeycap>[][]

The rows of keycaps in this layer

styles: string

The CSS stylesheet associated with this layer

module "options"Types

module "options"CoreOptions

createHTML: (html: string): any;

Support for Trusted Type.

This optional function will be called before a string of HTML is injected in the DOM, allowing that string to be sanitized according to a policy defined by the host.

fontsDirectory: string;

A URL fragment pointing to the directory containing the fonts necessary to render a formula.

These fonts are available in the /dist/fonts directory of the SDK.

Customize this value to reflect where you have copied these fonts, or to use the CDN version.

The default value is ‘./fonts’.

Changing this setting after the mathfield has been created will have no effect.

{
     // Use the CDN version
     fontsDirectory: ''
}
{
     // Use a directory called 'fonts', located next to the
     // `mathlive.js` (or `mathlive.mjs`) file.
     fontsDirectory: './fonts'
}
{
     // Use a directory located at the top your website
     fontsDirectory: 'https://example.com/fonts'
}
soundsDirectory: string;

A URL fragment pointing to the directory containing the optional sounds used to provide feedback while typing.

Some default sounds are available in the /dist/sounds directory of the SDK.

module "options"EditingOptions

mathModeSpace: string;

The Latex string to insert when the spacebar is pressed (on the physical or virtual keyboard). Empty by default. Use \; for a thick space, \: for a medium space, \, for a thin space.

readOnly: boolean;

When true, the user cannot edit the mathfield.

removeExtraneousParentheses: boolean;

If true, extra parentheses around a numerator or denominator are removed automatically.

scriptDepth: number | [number, number];

This option controls how many levels of subscript/superscript can be entered. For example, if scriptDepth is “1”, there can be one level of superscript or subscript. Attempting to enter a superscript while inside a superscript will be rejected. Setting a value of 0 will prevent entry of any superscript or subscript (but not limits for sum, integrals, etc…)

This can make it easier to enter equations that fit what’s expected for the domain where the mathfield is used.

To control the depth of superscript and subscript independently, provide an array: the first element indicate the maximum depth for subscript and the second element the depth of superscript. Thus, a value of [0, 1] would suppress the entry of subscripts, and allow one level of superscripts.

smartFence: boolean;

When true and an open fence is entered via typedText() it will generate a contextually appropriate markup, for example using \left...\right if applicable.

When false, the literal value of the character will be inserted instead.

smartMode: boolean;

When true, during text input the field will switch automatically between ‘math’ and ‘text’ mode depending on what is typed and the context of the formula. If necessary, what was previously typed will be ‘fixed’ to account for the new info.

For example, when typing “if x >0”:

Type Interpretation
“i” math mode, imaginary unit
“if” text mode, english word “if”
“if x” all in text mode, maybe the next word is xylophone?
“if x >” “if” stays in text mode, but now “x >” is in math mode
“if x > 0” “if” in text mode, “x > 0” in math mode

Smart Mode is off by default.

Manually switching mode (by typing alt/option+=) will temporarily turn off smart mode.

Examples

  • slope = rise/run
  • If x > 0, then f(x) = sin(x)
  • x^2 + sin (x) when x > 0
  • When x<0, x^{2n+1}<0
  • Graph x^2 -x+3 =0 for 0<=x<=5
  • Divide by x-3 and then add x^2-1 to both sides
  • Given g(x) = 4x – 3, when does g(x)=0?
  • Let D be the set {(x,y)|0<=x<=1 and 0<=y<=x}
  • \int_{the unit square} f(x,y) dx dy
  • For all n in NN
smartSuperscript: boolean;

When true, when a digit is entered in an empty superscript, the cursor leaps automatically out of the superscript. This makes entry of common polynomials easier and faster. If entering other characters (for example “n+1”) the navigation out of the superscript must be done manually (by using the cursor keys or the spacebar to leap to the next insertion point).

When false, the navigation out of the superscript must always be done manually.

module "options"InlineShortcutDefinition

An inline shortcut can be specified as a simple string or as an object literal with additional options:

    config.inlineShortcuts = {
     half: '\\frac{1}{2}',
     in: {
         mode: 'math',
         after: 'space+letter+digit+symbol+fence',
         value: '\\in',
     },
 };

When using a string, the shortcut will apply in any mode, and regardless of the characters surrounding it.

When using an object literal the value key is required an indicate the shortcut substitution.

The mode key, if present, indicate which mode this shortcut will apply in, either 'math' or 'text'. If the key is not present the shortcut apply in all modes.

The 'after' key, if present, indicate in what context (surrounding characters) the shortcut will apply. One or more values can be specified, separated by a ‘|’ character. If any of the values match, the shortcut will be applicable.

Possible values are:

'space' A spacing command, such as \quad
'nothing' The begining of a group
'surd' A square root or n-th root
'frac' A fraction
'function' A function such as \sin or f
'letter' A letter, such as x or n
'digit' 0 through 9
'binop' A binary operator, such as +
'relop' A relational operator, such as =
'punct' A punctuation mark, such as ,
'array' An array, such as a matrix or cases statement
'openfence' An opening fence, such as (
'closefence' A closing fence such as }
'text' Some plain text

  • | string
  • | {after: string; mode: ParseMode; value: string}

module "options"InlineShortcutsOptions

inlineShortcutTimeout: number;

Maximum time, in milliseconds, between consecutive characters for them to be considered part of the same shortcut sequence.

A value of 0 is the same as infinity: any consecutive character will be candidate for an inline shortcut, regardless of the interval between this character and the previous one.

A value of 750 will indicate that the maximum interval between two characters to be considered part of the same inline shortcut sequence is 3/4 of a second.

This is useful to enter “±” as a sequence of two characters, while also supporting the “±” shortcut with the same sequence.

The first result can be entered by pausing slightly between the first and second character if this option is set to a value of 250 or so.

Note that some operations, such as clicking to change the selection, or losing the focus on the mathfield, will automatically timeout the shortcuts.

inlineShortcuts: Record<string, InlineShortcutDefinition>;

The keys of this object literal indicate the sequence of characters that will trigger an inline shortcut.

string | {after: string; mode: ParseMode; value: string}

module "options"Keybinding

A keybinding associates a combination of physical keyboard keys with a command.

For example:

{
     "key": "cmd+a",
     "command": "selectAll",
},
{
     "key": 'ctrl+[Digit2]',
     "ifMode": 'math',
     "command": ['insert', '\\sqrt{#0}'],
}

command: Selector | [Selector, ...any[]];

The command is a single selector, or a selector with arguments

ifLayout: string[];
ifMode: ParseMode;

If specified, this indicates in which mode this keybinding will apply. If none is specified, the keybinding will apply in every mode.

ifPlatform: "macos" | "!macos" | "windows" | "!windows" | "linux" | "!linux" | "ios" | "!ios" | "android" | "!android" | "chromeos" | "!chromeos";

If specified, this indicates the OS platform to which this keybinding apply.

For example, if set to !macos this key binding will apply to every platform, except macOS.

key: string;

The pressed keys that will trigger this keybinding.

The key is made up of modifiers and the key itself.

The following modifiers can be used:

Platform Modifiers
macOS, iOS ctrl, shift, alt, cmd
Windows ctrl, shift, alt, win
Linux, Android, ChromeOS ctrl, shift, alt, meta

If the cmd modifier is used, the keybinding will only apply on macOS. If the win modifier is used, the keybinding will only apply to Windows. If the meta modifier is used, the keybinding will apply to platforms other than macOS or Windows.

The alt key is the option key on Apple keyboards.

The following values for keys can be used:

  • az, 09
  • `, -, =, [, ], \, ;, ', ,, ., /
  • left, up, right, down, pageup, pagedown, end, home
  • tab, enter, escape, space, backspace, delete
  • f1f19
  • pausebreak, capslock, insert
  • numpad0numpad9, numpad_multiply, numpad_add, numpad_separator
  • numpad_subtract, numpad_decimal, numpad_divide

The values will be remapped based on the current keyboard layout. So, for example if a is used, on a French AZERTY keyboard the keybinding will be associated with the key labeled ‘A’ (event though it corresponds to the key labeled ‘Q’ on a US QWERTY keyboard).

To associate keybindings with physical keys independent of the keyboard layout, use the following keycodes:

  • [KeyA][KeyZ], [Digit0][Digit9]
  • [Backquote], [Minus], [Equal], [BracketLeft], [BracketRight], [Backslash], [Semicolon], [Quote], [Comma], [Period], [Slash]
  • [ArrowLeft], [ArrowUp], [ArrowRight], [ArrowDown], [PageUp], [PageDown], [End], [Home]
  • [Tab], [Enter], [Escape], [Space], [Backspace], [Delete]
  • [F1][F19]
  • [Pause], [CapsLock], [Insert]
  • [Numpad0][Numpad9], [NumpadMultiply], [NumpadAdd], [NumpadComma]
  • [NumpadSubtract], [NumpadDecimal], [NumpadDivide]

For example, using [KeyQ] will map to the the key labeled ‘Q’ on a QWERTY keyboard, and to the key labeled ‘A’ on an AZERTY keyboard.

As a general guideline, it is preferable to use the key values az for keybinding that are pseudo-mnemotechnic. For the other, it is generally preferable to use the keycodes.

Consider the key combination: alt+2. With an AZERTY (French) layout, the digits (i.e. ‘2’) are only accessible when shifted. The ‘2’ key produces ‘é’ when not shifted. It is therefore impossible on an AZERTY keyboard to produce the alt+2 key combination, at best it would be alt+shift+2. To indicate that the intended key combination should be alt and the key on the keyboard which has the position of the 2 key on a US keyboard, a key code should be used instead: alt+[Digit2]. This will correspond to a key combination that can be generated on any keyboard.

If a keybinding is invalid (impossible to produce or ambiguous) with the current keyboard layout, an error will be generated, and the onError listener will be called with a invalid-keybinding error code.

module "options"KeyboardLayoutName

See setKeyboardLayout.

Name Platform Display name
'apple.en-intl' Apple English (International)
'apple.french' Apple French (AZERTY)
'apple.german' Apple German (QWERTZ)
'dvorak' English (Dvorak)
'windows.en-intl' Windows English (International)
'windows.french' Windows French (AZERTY)
'windows.german' Windows German (QWERTZ)
'linux.en' Linux English
'linux.french' Linux French (AZERTY)
'linux.german' Linux German (QWERTZ)

  • | "apple.en-intl"
  • | "apple.french"
  • | "apple.german"
  • | "apple.spanish"
  • | "dvorak"
  • | "windows.en-intl"
  • | "windows.french"
  • | "windows.german"
  • | "windows.spanish"
  • | "linux.en"
  • | "linux.french"
  • | "linux.german"
  • | "linux.spanish"

module "options"KeyboardOptions

keybindings: Keybinding[];

module "options"LayoutOptions

backgroundColorMap: (name: string): string | undefined;
colorMap: (name: string): string | undefined;

Map a color name as used in commands such as \textcolor{}{} or \colorbox{}{} to a CSS color value.

Use this option to override the standard mapping of colors such as “yellow” or “red”.

If the name is not one you expected, return undefined and the default color mapping will be applied.

If a backgroundColorMap() function is not provided, the colorMap() function will be used instead.

If colorMap() is not provided, default color mappings are applied.

The following color names have been optimized for a legible foreground and background values, and are recommended:

  • red, orange, yellow, lime, green, teal, blue, indigo, purple, magenta, black, dark-grey, grey, light-grey, white
defaultMode: "inline-math" | "math" | "text";

The mode of the element when it is empty:

  • 'math': equivalent to \displaystyle (display math mode)
  • 'inline-math': equivalent to \inlinestyle (inline math mode)
  • 'text': text mode
horizontalSpacingScale: number;
deprecated

Scaling factor to be applied to horizontal spacing between elements of the formula. A value greater than 1.0 can be used to improve the legibility.

deprecated

Use registers \thinmuskip, \medmuskip and \thickmuskip

letterShapeStyle: "auto" | "tex" | "iso" | "french" | "upright";

Control the letter shape style:

letterShapeStyle xyz ABC αβɣ ΓΔΘ
iso it it it it
tex it it it up
french it up up up
upright up up up up

(it) = italic (up) = upright

The default letter shape style is auto, which indicates that french should be used if the locale is “french”, and tex otherwise.

Historical Note

Where do the “french” rules come from? The TeX standard font, Computer Modern, is based on Monotype 155M, itself based on the Porson greek font which was one of the most widely used Greek fonts in english-speaking countries. This font had upright capitals, but slanted lowercase. In France, the traditional font for greek was Didot, which has both upright capitals and lowercase.

As for roman uppercase, they are recommended by “Lexique des règles typographiques en usage à l’Imprimerie Nationale”. It should be noted that this convention is not universally followed.

macros: MacroDictionary;

A dictionary of LaTeX macros to be used to interpret and render the content.

For example, to add a new macro to the default macro dictionary:

mf.setConfig({
macros: {
...mf.getOption('macros'),
smallfrac: '^{#1}\\!\\!/\\!_{#2}',
},
});

Note that getOption() is called to keep the existing macros and add to them. Otherwise, all the macros are replaced with the new definition.

The code above will support the following notation:

\smallfrac{5}{16}
registers: Registers;

LaTeX global registers override.

module "options"LocalizationOptions

locale: string;

The locale (language + region) to use for string localization.

If none is provided, the locale of the browser is used.

strings: Record<string, Record<string, string>>;

An object whose keys are a locale string, and whose values are an object of string identifier to localized string.

Example

{
"fr-CA": {
"tooltip.undo": "Annuler",
"tooltip.redo": "Refaire",
}
}

This will override the default localized strings.

module "options"MathfieldOptions


module "options"OriginValidator

Specify behaviour for origin validation.

Value Description
'same-origin' The origin of received message must be the same of hosted window, instead exception will thow.
'(origin: string) => boolean The callback to verify origin to be expected validation. When callback return false value, message will rejected and exception will throw.
'none' No origin validation for post messages.

  • | (origin: string): boolean
  • | "same-origin"
  • | "none"

module "options"RemoteVirtualKeyboardOptions

  • CoreOptions &
  • VirtualKeyboardOptions &
  • originValidator: OriginValidator;

    Specify behaviour how origin of message from postMessage should be validated.

    Default: 'same-origin'

    targetOrigin: string;

    Specify the targetOrigin parameter for postMessage to send control messages from parent to child frame to remote control of mathfield component.

    Default: window.origin

module "options"TextToSpeechOptions

readAloudHook: (element: HTMLElement, text: string, config: MathfieldOptions): void;
speakHook: (text: string, config: Partial<MathfieldOptions>): void;
speechEngine: "local" | "amazon";

Indicates which speech engine to use for speech output.

Use local to use the OS-specific TTS engine.

Use amazon for Amazon Text-to-Speech cloud API. You must include the AWS API library and configure it with your API key before use.

See Guide: Speech

speechEngineRate: string;

Sets the speed of the selected voice.

One of x-slow, slow, medium, fast, x-fast or a value as a percentage.

Range is 20% to 200% For example 200% to indicate a speaking rate twice the default rate.

speechEngineVoice: string;

Indicates the voice to use with the speech engine.

This is dependent on the speech engine. For Amazon Polly, see here: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/polly/latest/dg/voicelist.html

textToSpeechMarkup: "" | "ssml" | "ssml_step" | "mac";

The markup syntax to use for the output of conversion to spoken text.

Possible values are ssml for the SSML markup or mac for the macOS markup, i.e. &#91;&#91;ltr&#93;&#93;.

textToSpeechRules: "mathlive" | "sre";

Specify which set of text to speech rules to use.

A value of mathlive indicates that the simple rules built into MathLive should be used.

A value of sre indicates that the Speech Rule Engine from Volker Sorge should be used.

Caution

SRE is not included or loaded by MathLive. For this option to work SRE should be loaded separately.

See Guide: Speech

textToSpeechRulesOptions: Record<string, string>;

A set of key/value pairs that can be used to configure the speech rule engine.

Which options are available depends on the speech rule engine in use. There are no options available with MathLive’s built-in engine. The options for the SRE engine are documented here

module "options"UndoStateChangeListener

(target: Mathfield, action: "undo" | "redo" | "snapshot"): void

module "options"VirtualKeyboardOptions

customVirtualKeyboardLayers: Record<string, string | Partial<VirtualKeyboardLayer>>;

Custom virtual keyboard layers.

A keyboard is made up of one or more layers (think of the main layer and the shift layer on a hardware keyboard). Each key in this object define a new keyboard layer (or replace an existing one). The value of the key should be some HTML markup.

*See Guide: Virtual Keyboards

customVirtualKeyboards: Record<string, VirtualKeyboardDefinition>;
keypressSound: string | HTMLAudioElement | "null" | {default: "null" | string | HTMLAudioElement; delete: "null" | string | HTMLAudioElement; return: "null" | string | HTMLAudioElement; spacebar: "null" | string | HTMLAudioElement};

When a key on the virtual keyboard is pressed, produce a short audio feedback.

If the property is set to a string or HTMLAudioElement, the same sound is played in all cases. Otherwise, a distinct sound is played:

  • delete a sound played when the delete key is pressed
  • return … when the return/tab key is pressed
  • spacebar … when the spacebar is pressed
  • default … when any other key is pressed. This key is required, the others are optional. If they are missing, this sound is played as well.

The value of the properties should be either a string, the name of an audio file in the soundsDirectory directory, an HTMLAudioElement or null to supress the sound.

keypressVibration: boolean;

When a key on the virtual keyboard is pressed, produce a short haptic feedback, if the device supports it.

plonkSound: string | HTMLAudioElement | "null";

Sound played to provide feedback when a command has no effect, for example when pressing the spacebar at the root level.

The property is either:

  • a string, the name of an audio file in the soundsDirectory directory
  • an HTMLAudioElement
  • null to turn off the sound
virtualKeyboardContainer: "null" | HTMLElement;

Element the virtual keyboard element gets appended to. The position attribute of this element should be relative so that the virtual keyboard can correctly be placed relative to this element.

When using full screen elements that contain mathfield, set this property to the full screen element to ensure the virtual keyboard will be visible.

Default: document.body

virtualKeyboardLayout: "auto" | "qwerty" | "azerty" | "qwertz" | "dvorak" | "colemak";
virtualKeyboardMode: "auto" | "manual" | "onfocus" | "off";
  • 'manual': pressing the virtual keyboard toggle button will show or hide the virtual keyboard. If hidden, the virtual keyboard is not shown when the field is focused until the toggle button is pressed.
  • 'onfocus': the virtual keyboard will be displayed whenever the field is focused and hidden when the field loses focus. In that case, the virtual keyboard toggle button is not displayed.
  • 'off': the virtual keyboard toggle button is not displayed, and the virtual keyboard is never triggered.
  • 'auto': 'onfocus' on touch-capable devices and 'off' otherwise (default).
virtualKeyboardTheme: "material" | "apple" | "";

The visual theme of the virtual keyboard.

If empty, the theme will switch automatically based on the device it’s running on. The two supported themes are ‘material’ and ‘apple’ (the default).

virtualKeyboardToggleGlyph: string;

Markup for the virtual keyboard toggle glyph.

If none is specified a default keyboard icon is used.

virtualKeyboardToolbar: VirtualKeyboardToolbarOptions;

The right hand side toolbar configuration.

Use none to disable right hand side toolbar of virtual keyboard.

virtualKeyboards: "all" | "numeric" | "roman" | "greek" | "functions" | "symbols" | "latex" | string;

A space separated list of the keyboards that should be available. The keyboard 'all' is synonym with 'numeric', 'functions'``, ‘symbols’`` 'roman' and 'greek',

The keyboards will be displayed in the order indicated.

module "options"VirtualKeyboardToolbarOptions

  • | "none"
  • | "default"

module "mathlive"

Use MathLive to render and edit mathematical formulas.

Read Getting Started for more info.

<script type="module">
// Load the `Mathlive` module from a CDN
import { convertLatexToSpeakableText } from 'https://unpkg.com/mathlive/dist/mathlive.min.mjs';

console.log(convertLatexToSpeakableText('e^{i\\pi}+1=0'));
</script>

version

0.69.3

module "mathlive"Functions

Converting

Rendering

Other

Converting

module "mathlive"convertLatexToMarkup

Convert a LaTeX string to a string of HTML markup.

Note

This function does not interact with the DOM. It can be used on the server side. The function does not load fonts or inject stylesheets in the document. To get the output of this function to correctly display in a document, use the mathlive static style sheet by adding the following to the <head> of the document:

    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://unpkg.com/mathlive/dist/mathlive-static.css" />
convertLatexToMarkup(text: string, options?: {letterShapeStyle: "tex" | "french" | "iso" | "upright" | "auto"; macros: MacroDictionary; mathstyle: "displaystyle" | "textstyle"; onError: ErrorListener<ParserErrorCode>; registers: Registers}): string
text: string

A string of valid LaTeX. It does not have to start with a mode token such as $$ or \(.

options:
letterShapeStyle: "tex" | "french" | "iso" | "upright" | "auto";
macros: MacroDictionary;

A dictionary of LaTeX macros

mathstyle: "displaystyle" | "textstyle";

If 'displaystyle' the “display” mode of TeX is used to typeset the formula, which is most appropriate for formulas that are displayed in a standalone block.

If 'textstyle' is used, the “text” mode of TeX is used, which is most appropriate when displaying math “inline” with other text (on the same line).

onError: ErrorListener<ParserErrorCode>;

A function invoked when a syntax error is encountered. An attempt to recover will be made even when an error is reported.

registers: Registers;
string

module "mathlive"convertLatexToMathMl

Convert a LaTeX string to a string of MathML markup.

convertLatexToMathMl(latex: string, options?: {generateID: boolean; macros: MacroDictionary; onError: ErrorListener<ParserErrorCode>; registers: Registers}): string
latex: string

A string of valid LaTeX. It does not have to start with a mode token such as a $$ or \(.

options:
generateID: boolean;
macros: MacroDictionary;
onError: ErrorListener<ParserErrorCode>;

Callback invoked when an error is encountered while parsing the input string.

registers: Registers;
string

module "mathlive"convertLatexToSpeakableText

Convert a LaTeX string to a textual representation ready to be spoken

console.log(convertLatexToSpeakableText('\\frac{1}{2}'));
// 'half'
convertLatexToSpeakableText(latex: string, options: TextToSpeechOptions & {macros: MacroDictionary; onError: ErrorListener<ParserErrorCode>; registers: Registers}): string
latex: string

A string of valid LaTeX. It does not have to start with a mode token such as a $$ or \(.

options:
readAloudHook: (element: HTMLElement, text: string, config: MathfieldOptions): void;
speakHook: (text: string, config: Partial<MathfieldOptions>): void;
speechEngine: "local" | "amazon";

Indicates which speech engine to use for speech output.

Use local to use the OS-specific TTS engine.

Use amazon for Amazon Text-to-Speech cloud API. You must include the AWS API library and configure it with your API key before use.

See Guide: Speech

speechEngineRate: string;

Sets the speed of the selected voice.

One of x-slow, slow, medium, fast, x-fast or a value as a percentage.

Range is 20% to 200% For example 200% to indicate a speaking rate twice the default rate.

speechEngineVoice: string;

Indicates the voice to use with the speech engine.

This is dependent on the speech engine. For Amazon Polly, see here: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/polly/latest/dg/voicelist.html

textToSpeechMarkup: "" | "ssml" | "ssml_step" | "mac";

The markup syntax to use for the output of conversion to spoken text.

Possible values are ssml for the SSML markup or mac for the macOS markup, i.e. &#91;&#91;ltr&#93;&#93;.

textToSpeechRules: "mathlive" | "sre";

Specify which set of text to speech rules to use.

A value of mathlive indicates that the simple rules built into MathLive should be used.

A value of sre indicates that the Speech Rule Engine from Volker Sorge should be used.

Caution

SRE is not included or loaded by MathLive. For this option to work SRE should be loaded separately.

See Guide: Speech

textToSpeechRulesOptions: Record<string, string>;

A set of key/value pairs that can be used to configure the speech rule engine.

Which options are available depends on the speech rule engine in use. There are no options available with MathLive’s built-in engine. The options for the SRE engine are documented here

string

The spoken representation of the input LaTeX.

Rendering

module "mathlive"renderMathInDocument

Transform all the elements in the document body that contain LaTeX code into typeset math.

Caution

This is a very expensive call, as it needs to parse the entire DOM tree to determine which elements need to be processed. In most cases this should only be called once per document, once the DOM has been loaded.

To render a specific element, use renderMathInElement()

Read Getting Started.

import { renderMathInDocument } from 'https://unpkg.com/mathlive/dist/mathlive.min.mjs';
document.addEventListener("load", () => {
    renderMathInDocument();
});
renderMathInDocument(options?: AutoRenderOptions): void
options: AutoRenderOptions

module "mathlive"renderMathInElement

Transform all the children of element that contain LaTeX code into typeset math, recursively.

Read Getting Started.

renderMathInElement(element: string | HTMLElement, options?: AutoRenderOptions): void
element:

An HTML DOM element, or a string containing the ID of an element.

options: AutoRenderOptions

Other

module "mathlive"makeSharedVirtualKeyboard

Initialize remote client for mathfield elements rendered in child frames. This client instance control focus between multiple frames and mathfield elements and renders the virtual keyboard with required options passed by params of this method.

makeSharedVirtualKeyboard(options: RemoteVirtualKeyboardOptions): void
options: RemoteVirtualKeyboardOptions

Options to configure virtual keyboard that will be rendered on this frame.

<iframe src="...">
     <!-- The iframe page content -->
     <math-field virtual-keyboard-mode="onfocus" use-shared-virtual-keyboard />

     <script type="module">
         import 'https://unpkg.com/mathlive/dist/mathlive.min.mjs';
     </script>
</iframe>
 import { makeSharedVirtualKeyboard } from 'https://unpkg.com/mathlive/dist/mathlive.min.mjs';

 makeSharedVirtualKeyboard({});

module "mathlive"version

version: string

Current version: 0.69.3

The version string of the SDK using the semver convention:

MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH

  • MAJOR is incremented for incompatible API changes
  • MINOR is incremented for new features
  • PATCH is incremented for bug fixes

module "mathlive"AutoRenderOptions

TeX: {delimiters: {display: [openDelim: string, closeDelim: string][]; inline: [openDelim: string, closeDelim: string][]}; processEnvironments: boolean};
asciiMath: {delimiters: {display: [openDelim: string, closeDelim: string][]; inline: [openDelim: string, closeDelim: string][]}};
createHTML: (html: string): string;

Support for Trusted Type.

This optional function will be called whenever the DOM is modified by injecting a string of HTML, allowing that string to be sanitized according to a policy defined by the host.

fontsDirectory: string;

A URL fragment pointing to the directory containing the fonts necessary to render a formula.

These fonts are available in the /dist/fonts directory of the SDK.

Customize this value to reflect where you have copied these fonts, or to use the CDN version.

The default value is ‘./fonts’.

Changing this setting after the mathfield has been created will have no effect.

{
     // Use the CDN version
     fontsDirectory: ''
}
{
     // Use a directory called 'fonts', located next to the
     // `mathlive.js` (or `mathlive.mjs`) file.
     fontsDirectory: './fonts'
}
{
     // Use a directory located at the top your website
     fontsDirectory: 'https://example.com/fonts'
}
ignoreClass: string;

A string used as a regular expression of class names of elements whose content will not be scanned for delimiter

Default: 'tex2jax_ignore'

macros: MacroDictionary;

Custom LaTeX macros

namespace: string;

Namespace that is added to data- attributes to avoid collisions with other libraries.

It is empty by default.

The namespace should be a string of lowercase letters.

processClass: string;

A string used as a regular expression of class names of elements whose content will be scanned for delimiters, even if their tag name or parent class name would have prevented them from doing so.

Default: 'tex2jax_process'

processScriptType: string;

<script> tags of the indicated type will be processed while others will be ignored.

Default: 'math/tex'

readAloud: boolean;

If true, generate markup that can be read aloud later using speak

Default: false

registers: Registers;

LaTeX global register overrides

renderAccessibleContent: string;

The format(s) in which to render the math for screen readers:

  • 'mathml' MathML
  • 'speakable-text' Spoken representation

You can pass an empty string to turn off the rendering of accessible content. You can pass multiple values separated by spaces, e.g 'mathml speakable-text'

Default: 'mathml'

skipTags: string[];

An array of tag names whose content will not be scanned for delimiters (unless their class matches the processClass pattern below.

Default: ['math-field', 'noscript', 'style', 'textarea', 'pre', 'code', 'annotation', 'annotation-xml']

module "mathfield"

module "mathfield"interface Mathfield

Implemented by MathfieldElement

Accessing the Content

Changing the Content

Focus

Other

Accessing the Content

interface MathfieldgetValue

Returns a textual representation of the mathfield.

getValue(format?: OutputFormat): string
format: OutputFormat

The format of the result. Default = "latex"

string

getValue(start: number, end: number, format?: OutputFormat): string
start: number
end: number
format: OutputFormat
string

getValue(range: Range | Selection, format?: OutputFormat): string
range:
format: OutputFormat
string

getValue(arg1?: number | OutputFormat | Range | Selection, arg2?: number | OutputFormat, arg3?: OutputFormat): string
arg1:
arg2:
arg3: OutputFormat
string

interface MathfieldsetValue

Sets the content of the mathfield to the text interpreted as a LaTeX expression.

setValue(latex?: string, options?: InsertOptions): void
latex: string
options: InsertOptions

Changing the Content

interface Mathfieldinsert

Inserts a block of text at the current insertion point.

This method can be called explicitly or invoked as a selector with executeCommand("insert").

After the insertion, the selection will be set according to the options.selectionMode.

insert(s: string, options?: InsertOptions): boolean
s: string
options: InsertOptions
boolean

Focus

interface Mathfieldblur

blur(): void

interface Mathfieldfocus

focus(): void

interface MathfieldhasFocus

hasFocus(): boolean
boolean

Other

interface MathfieldapplyStyle

Updates the style (color, bold, italic, etc…) of the selection or sets the style to be applied to future input.

If there is no selection and no range is specified, the style will apply to the next character typed.

If a range is specified, the style is applied to the range, otherwise, if there is a selection, the style is applied to the selection.

If the operation is ‘toggle’ and the range already has this style, remove it. If the range has the style partially applied (i.e. only some sections), remove it from those sections, and apply it to the entire range.

If the operation is ‘set’, the style is applied to the range, whether it already has the style or not.

The default operation is ‘set’.

applyStyle(style: Style, options?: ApplyStyleOptions): void
style: Style
options: ApplyStyleOptions

interface MathfieldexecuteCommand

Execute a Commands defined by a selector.

mfe.executeCommand('add-column-after');
mfe.executeCommand(['switch-mode', 'math']);
executeCommand(command: Selector | [Selector, ...any[]]): boolean
command:

A selector, or an array whose first element is a selector, and whose subsequent elements are arguments to the selector.

Selectors can be passed either in camelCase or kebab-case.

// Both calls do the same thing
mfe.executeCommand('selectAll');
mfe.executeCommand('select-all');
boolean

interface Mathfieldfind

Search the formula for items matching the pattern as a Latex string or as a regular expression matching a Latex string.

Results are returned as a Range array. If no results are found an empty array is returned.

find(pattern: string | RegExp, options?: FindOptions): Range[]
pattern:
options: FindOptions
Range[]

interface MathfieldgetCaretPoint

getCaretPoint(): {x: number; y: number}
{x: number; y: number}

interface MathfieldgetOption

getOption(key: K): MathfieldOptions[K]
key: K
MathfieldOptions[K]

interface MathfieldgetOptions


getOptions(keys: K[]): Pick<MathfieldOptions, K>
keys: K[]
Pick<MathfieldOptions, K>

interface Mathfieldreplace

Replace the pattern items matching the pattern with the replacement value.

If replacement is a function, the function is called for each match and the function return value will be used as the replacement.

replace(pattern: string | RegExp, replacement: string | ReplacementFunction, options?: FindOptions): void
pattern:
replacement:
options: FindOptions

interface Mathfieldselect

select(): void

interface MathfieldsetCaretPoint

setCaretPoint(x: number, y: number): boolean
x: number
y: number
boolean

interface MathfieldsetOptions

setOptions(options: Partial<MathfieldOptions>): void
options: Partial<MathfieldOptions>

interface MathfieldMathfield.mode

ParseMode

interface MathfieldMathfield.virtualKeyboardState

  • | "hidden"
  • | "visible"

module "mathfield"interface Model

mathfield: Mathfield

module "mathfield"interface VirtualKeyboardInterface

This interface is implemented by:

  • VirtualKeyboard
  • VirtualKeyboardDelegate (used when the virtual keyboard is shared amongst mathfield instances)
  • RemoteVirtualKeyboard (the shared virtual keyboard instance)

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfaceblurMathfield

blurMathfield(): void

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfacecreate

Called once when the keyboard is created

create(): void

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfacedisable

disable(): void

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfacedispose

After calling dispose() the Virtual Keyboard is no longer valid and cannot be brought back. Use disable() for temporarily deactivating the keboard.

dispose(): void

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfaceenable

enable(): void

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfaceexecuteCommand

executeCommand(command: string | [string, ...any[]]): boolean
command:
  • | string
  • | [string, ...any[]]
boolean

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfacefocusMathfield

focusMathfield(): void

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfacesetOptions

setOptions(options: VirtualKeyboardOptions & CoreOptions): void
options:

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfacestateChanged

stateChanged(): void

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfaceVirtualKeyboardInterface.height

number

interface VirtualKeyboardInterfaceVirtualKeyboardInterface.visible

boolean

module "mathfield"Types

module "mathfield"ApplyStyleOptions

operation: "set" | "toggle";
range: Range;
suppressChangeNotifications: boolean;

module "mathfield"FindOptions

mode: ParseMode;

module "mathfield"InsertOptions

feedback: boolean;

If true, provide audio and haptic feedback

focus: boolean;

If true, the mathfield will be focused after the insertion

format: OutputFormat | "auto";

The format of the input string:

"auto" The string is Latex fragment or command) (default)
"latex" The string is a Latex fragment
insertionMode: "replaceSelection" | "replaceAll" | "insertBefore" | "insertAfter";
macros: MacroDictionary;
mode: ParseMode | "auto";

If "auto" or omitted, the current mode is used

registers: Registers;
resetStyle: boolean;

If true, the style after the insertion is the same as the style before. If false, the style after the insertion is the style of the last inserted atom.

selectionMode: "placeholder" | "after" | "before" | "item";

Describes where the selection will be after the insertion:

"placeholder" The selection will be the first available placeholder in the text that has been inserted (default)
"after" The selection will be an insertion point after the inserted text
"before" The selection will be an insertion point before the inserted text
"item" The inserted text will be selected
smartFence: boolean;

If true, promote plain fences, e.g. (, as \left...\right or \mleft...\mright

style: Style;
suppressChangeNotifications: boolean;

module "mathfield"Offset

A position of the caret/insertion point from the beginning of the formula.


number

module "mathfield"OutputFormat

Format Description
"ascii-math" A string of ASCIIMath.
"latex" LaTeX rendering of the content, with LaTeX macros not expanded.
"latex-expanded" All macros are recursively expanded to their definition.
"math-json" A MathJSON abstract syntax tree, as an object literal formated as a JSON string.
"math-ml" A string of MathML markup.
"spoken" Spoken text rendering, using the default format defined in config, which could be either text or SSML markup.
"spoken-text" A plain spoken text rendering of the content.
"spoken-ssml" A SSML (Speech Synthesis Markup Language) version of the content, which can be used with some text-to-speech engines such as AWS.
"spoken-ssml-with-highlighting" Like "spoken-ssml" but with additional annotations necessary for synchronized higlighting (read aloud).

  • | "ascii-math"
  • | "latex"
  • | "latex-expanded"
  • | "math-json"
  • | "math-ml"
  • | "spoken"
  • | "spoken-text"
  • | "spoken-ssml"
  • | "spoken-ssml-with-highlighting"

module "mathfield"Range

A pair of offests (boundary points) that can be used to denote a fragment of an expression.

A range is said to be collapsed when start and end are equal.

When specifying a range, a negative offset can be used to indicate an offset from the last valid offset, i.e. -1 is the last valid offset, -2 is one offset before that, etc…

A normalized range will always be such that start <= end, start >= 0, end >= 0, start < lastOffset, end < lastOffset. All the methods return a normalized range.

See Also


[start: Offset, end: Offset]

module "mathfield"ReplacementFunction

(args: {latex: string; match: string; p: string[]; range: Range}): string

module "mathfield"Selection

A selection is a set of ranges (to support discontinous selection, for example when selecting a column in a matrix).

If there is a single range and that range is collapsed, the selection is collapsed.

A selection can also have a direction. While many operations are insensitive to the direction, a few are. For example, when selecting a fragment of an expression from left to right, the direction of this range will be “forward”. Pressing the left arrow key will sets the insertion at the start of the range. Conversely, if the selectionis made from right to left, the direction is “backward” and pressing the left arrow key will set the insertion point at the end of the range.

See Also


direction: "forward" | "backward" | "none";
ranges: Range[];

module "commands"

module "commands"interface Commands

Commands return true if they resulted in a dirty state

Array

Auto-complete

Clipboard

Deleting

Scrolling

Selection

Undo/Redo

Virtual Keyboard

Other

Array

interface Commandscommand​addColumnAfter

executeCommand("addColumnAfter"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​addColumnBefore

executeCommand("addColumnBefore"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​addRowAfter

executeCommand("addRowAfter"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​addRowBefore

executeCommand("addRowBefore"): boolean

Auto-complete

interface Commandscommand​complete

executeCommand("complete"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​nextSuggestion

executeCommand("nextSuggestion"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​previousSuggestion

executeCommand("previousSuggestion"): boolean

Clipboard

interface Commandscommand​copyToClipboard

executeCommand("copyToClipboard"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​cutToClipboard

executeCommand("cutToClipboard"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​pasteFromClipboard

executeCommand("pasteFromClipboard"): boolean

Deleting

interface Commandscommand​deleteAll

executeCommand("deleteAll"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​deleteBackward

executeCommand("deleteBackward"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​deleteForward

executeCommand("deleteForward"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​deleteNextWord

executeCommand("deleteNextWord"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​deletePreviousWord

executeCommand("deletePreviousWord"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​deleteToGroupEnd

executeCommand("deleteToGroupEnd"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​deleteToGroupStart

executeCommand("deleteToGroupStart"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​deleteToMathFieldEnd

executeCommand("deleteToMathFieldEnd"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​deleteToMathFieldStart

executeCommand("deleteToMathFieldStart"): boolean

Scrolling

interface Commandscommand​scrollIntoView

executeCommand("scrollIntoView"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​scrollToEnd

executeCommand("scrollToEnd"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​scrollToStart

executeCommand("scrollToStart"): boolean

Selection

interface Commandscommand​extendSelectionBackward

executeCommand("extendSelectionBackward"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendSelectionDownward

executeCommand("extendSelectionDownward"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendSelectionForward

executeCommand("extendSelectionForward"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendSelectionUpward

executeCommand("extendSelectionUpward"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendToGroupEnd

executeCommand("extendToGroupEnd"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendToGroupStart

executeCommand("extendToGroupStart"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendToMathFieldEnd

executeCommand("extendToMathFieldEnd"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendToMathFieldStart

executeCommand("extendToMathFieldStart"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendToNextBoundary

executeCommand("extendToNextBoundary"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendToNextWord

executeCommand("extendToNextWord"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendToPreviousBoundary

executeCommand("extendToPreviousBoundary"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​extendToPreviousWord

executeCommand("extendToPreviousWord"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveAfterParent

executeCommand("moveAfterParent"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveBeforeParent

executeCommand("moveBeforeParent"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveDown

executeCommand("moveDown"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToGroupEnd

executeCommand("moveToGroupEnd"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToGroupStart

executeCommand("moveToGroupStart"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToMathFieldEnd

executeCommand("moveToMathFieldEnd"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToMathFieldStart

executeCommand("moveToMathFieldStart"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToNextChar

executeCommand("moveToNextChar"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToNextPlaceholder

executeCommand("moveToNextPlaceholder"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToNextWord

executeCommand("moveToNextWord"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToOpposite

executeCommand("moveToOpposite"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToPreviousChar

executeCommand("moveToPreviousChar"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToPreviousPlaceholder

executeCommand("moveToPreviousPlaceholder"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToPreviousWord

executeCommand("moveToPreviousWord"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToSubscript

executeCommand("moveToSubscript"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveToSuperscript

executeCommand("moveToSuperscript"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​moveUp

executeCommand("moveUp"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​selectAll

executeCommand("selectAll"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​selectGroup

executeCommand("selectGroup"): boolean

Undo/Redo

interface Commandscommand​redo

executeCommand("redo"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​undo

executeCommand("undo"): boolean

Virtual Keyboard

interface Commandscommand​hideVirtualKeyboard

executeCommand("hideVirtualKeyboard"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​showVirtualKeyboard

executeCommand(["showVirtualKeyboard", theme: "" | "apple" | "material"]): boolean
theme:
  • | ""
  • | "apple"
  • | "material"

interface Commandscommand​toggleVirtualKeyboard

executeCommand(["toggleVirtualKeyboard", theme: "" | "apple" | "material"]): boolean
theme:
  • | ""
  • | "apple"
  • | "material"

Other

interface Commandscommand​applyStyle

executeCommand(["applyStyle", style: Style]): boolean
style: Style

interface Commandscommand​commit

executeCommand("commit"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​insert

executeCommand(["insert", s: string, options: InsertOptions]): boolean
s: string
options: InsertOptions

interface Commandscommand​performWithFeedback

executeCommand(["performWithFeedback", command: string]): boolean
command: string

Perform a command and include interactive feedback such as sound and haptic feedback. This is useful to simulate user interaction, for example for commands from the virtual keyboard

interface Commandscommand​speak

executeCommand(["speak", scope: SpeechScope, options: {withHighlighting: boolean}]): boolean
scope: SpeechScope
options:
withHighlighting: boolean;

In addition to speaking the requested portion of the formula, visually highlight it as it is read (read aloud functionality)

interface Commandscommand​switchMode

executeCommand(["switchMode", mode: ParseMode]): boolean
mode: ParseMode

interface Commandscommand​toggleKeystrokeCaption

executeCommand("toggleKeystrokeCaption"): boolean

interface Commandscommand​typedText

executeCommand(["typedText", options: {feedback: boolean; focus: boolean; simulateKeystroke: boolean}]): boolean
options:
feedback: boolean;

If true, provide audio and haptic feedback

focus: boolean;

If true, the mathfield will be focused

simulateKeystroke: boolean;

If true, generate some synthetic keystrokes (useful to trigger inline shortcuts, for example).

module "commands"Types

module "commands"Selector

Keys<Commands>

module "commands"SpeechScope

How much of the formula should be spoken:

all the entire formula
selection the selection portion of the formula
left the element to the left of the selection
right the element to the right of the selection
group the group (numerator, root, etc…) the selection is in
parent the parent of the selection

  • | "all"
  • | "selection"
  • | "left"
  • | "right"
  • | "group"
  • | "parent"

module "core"

module "core"interface Style

Use a Style object literal to modify the visual appearance of a mathfield or a portion of a mathfield.

You can control the color (“ink”) and background color (“paper”), the font variant, weight (FontSeries), size and more.

See Also


backgroundColor?: string
color?: string
fontFamily?: string
fontSeries?: FontSeries
fontShape?: FontShape
fontSize?: "auto" | FontSize
letterShapeStyle?: "auto" | "tex" | "french" | "iso" | "upright"
variant?: Variant
variantStyle?: VariantStyle

module "core"Types

module "core"Dimension

A dimension is used to specify the size of things


dimension: number;
unit: DimensionUnit;

module "core"DimensionUnit

  • | "pt"
  • | "mm"
  • | "cm"
  • | "ex"
  • | "px"
  • | "em"
  • | "bp"
  • | "dd"
  • | "pc"
  • | "in"
  • | "mu"
  • | "fil"
  • | "fill"
  • | "filll"

module "core"ErrorListener

<T> = (err: {after: string; arg: string; before: string; code: T; latex: string}): void

module "core"FontSeries

  • | "auto"
  • | "m"
  • | "b"
  • | "l"
  • | ""

module "core"FontShape

  • | "auto"
  • | "n"
  • | "it"
  • | "sl"
  • | "sc"
  • | ""

module "core"FontSize

  • | "1"
  • | "2"
  • | "3"
  • | "4"
  • | "5"
  • | "6"
  • | "7"
  • | "8"
  • | "9"
  • | "10"

module "core"Glue

Glue represents flexible spacing, that is a dimension that can grow (by the grow property) or shrink (by the shrink property).


glue: Dimension;
grow: Dimension;
shrink: Dimension;

module "core"MacroDefinition

See Also


args: number;
captureSelection: boolean;
def: string;
expand: boolean;

module "core"MacroDictionary

A dictionary of LaTeX macros to be used to interpret and render the content.

For example:

mf.setOptions({
macros: {
smallfrac: '^{#1}\\!\\!/\\!_{#2}',
},
});

The code above will support the following notation:

\smallfrac{5}{16}

See Also


module "core"MacroPackageDefinition

captureSelection: boolean;
expand: boolean;
package: Record<string, string | MacroDefinition>;

module "core"MathfieldErrorCode

  • | "invalid-keybinding"
  • | "font-not-found"

module "core"ParseMode

The mode that indicates how a portion of content is interpreted


  • | "math"
  • | "text"
  • | "latex"

module "core"ParserErrorCode

Error code passed to the ErrorListener function.

See MathfieldOptions, convertLatexToMarkup

font-not-found A required font could not be loaded. The fontDirectory option may not be setup correctly or the ‘fonts’ directory is missing.
invalid-keybinding A keybinding includes a combinatino of keys which cannot be performed with the current keyboard layout.
unknown-command There is no definition available for this command, e.g. \zin
unknown-environment There is no definition available for this environment, e.g. \begin{foo}
invalid-command This command is not valid in the current mode (e.g. text command in math mode)
unbalanced-braces There are too many or too few { or }
unbalanced-environment An environment was open but never closed (\begin{array}) or the \end command does not match the \begin command (\begin{array*}\end{array})
unbalanced-mode-shift A $, $$, \( or \[ was not balanced
missing-argument A required argument is missing, e.g. \frac{2}
too-many-infix-commands A group can include only one infix command (i.e. \choose, \atop). In general it’s best to avoid infix commands.
unexpected-command-in-string A command expected a string argument, but there was a command instead
missing-unit An argument requiring a dimension was missing an unit.
unexpected-delimiter An invalid symbol or command was used as a delimiter.
unexpected-token An unexpected character was encountered.
unexpected-end-of-string The end of the string was reached, but some required arguments were missing.
improper-alphabetic-constant The alphabetic constant prefix ` was not followed by a letter or single character command.

  • | "unknown-command"
  • | "invalid-command"
  • | "unbalanced-braces"
  • | "unknown-environment"
  • | "unbalanced-environment"
  • | "unbalanced-mode-shift"
  • | "missing-argument"
  • | "too-many-infix-commands"
  • | "unexpected-command-in-string"
  • | "missing-unit"
  • | "unexpected-delimiter"
  • | "unexpected-token"
  • | "unexpected-end-of-string"
  • | "improper-alphabetic-constant"

module "core"RegisterValue

module "core"Registers

TeX registers represent ‘variables’ and ‘constants’.

Changing the values of some registers can modify the layout of math expressions.

The following registers might be of interest:

  • thinmuskip
  • medmuskip
  • thickmuskip
  • nulldelimiterspace
  • delimitershortfall
  • jot

module "core"Variant

Variants indicate a stylistic alternate for some characters.

Typically, those are controlled with explicit commands, such as \mathbb{} or \mathfrak{}. This type is used with the applyStyle method to change the styling of a range of selected characters.

In mathematical notation these variants are used not only for visual presentation, but they may have semantic significance.

For example, the set ℂ should not be confused with the physical unit 𝖢 (Coulomb).

When rendered, these variants can map to some built-in fonts. Latex supports a limited set of characters. However, MathLive will map characters not supported by Latex fonts(double-stuck variant for digits for example) to a Unicode character (see Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols on Wikipedia ).

normal is a synthetic variant that maps either to main (roman) or math (italic) depending on the symbol and the letterShapeStyle.

The math variant has italic characters as well as slightly different letter shape and spacing (a bit more space after the “f” for example), so it’s not completely equivalent to a main variant with italic variant style applied.

See Also


  • | "ams"
  • | "double-struck"
  • | "calligraphic"
  • | "script"
  • | "fraktur"
  • | "sans-serif"
  • | "monospace"
  • | "normal"
  • | "main"
  • | "math"

module "core"VariantStyle

Some variants support stylistic variations.

Note that these stylistic variations support a limited set of characters, typically just uppercase and lowercase letters, and digits 0-9 in some cases.

variant up bold italic bolditalic
normal ABCabc012 𝐀𝐁𝐂𝐚𝐛𝐜𝟎𝟏𝟐 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝑎𝑏𝑐 𝑨𝑩𝑪𝒂𝒃𝒄
double-struck 𝔸𝔹ℂ𝕒𝕓𝕔𝟘𝟙𝟚 n/a n/a n/a
calligraphic 𝒜ℬ𝒞𝒶𝒷𝒸 𝓐𝓑𝓒𝓪𝓫𝓬 n/a n/a
fraktur 𝔄𝔅ℭ𝔞𝔟𝔠 𝕬𝕭𝕮𝖆𝖇𝖈 n/a n/a
sans-serif 𝖠𝖡𝖢𝖺𝖻𝖼𝟢𝟣𝟤 𝗔𝗕𝗖𝗮𝗯𝗰𝟬𝟭𝟮 𝘈𝘉𝘊𝘢𝘣𝘤 𝘼𝘽𝘾𝙖𝙗𝙘
monospace 𝙰𝙱𝙲𝚊𝚋𝚌 n/a n/a n/a

  • | "up"
  • | "bold"
  • | "italic"
  • | "bolditalic"
  • | ""
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